Talk to Your Doctor

Lifestyle Changes

  • Exercise - A variety of exercises are required for optimal bone health including strength training and weight-bearing, balance and posture.
  • These changes may include improving your balance (like trying yoga or tai chi) or fitting in some simple exercises (like walking).
  • Stop smoking and avoid excess alcohol


  • Experts recommend that all Canadian adults take a vitamin D supplement (specifically, vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol) year-round. This is the most common type of vitamin D found in supplements in Canada.
  • If it is not possible for you to get enough calcium through diet alone, a supplement may be helpful.

Talk to Your Doctor about a fracture risk assessment


Talk to your doctor about having a fracture risk assessment. There are two tools that you and your doctor can use. To use the tool, click the image below which will redirect you to the calculation tool.



A fracture risk assessment includes your age, sex, fracture history, and other risk factors. A fracture risk assessment will tell you if you are at low, moderate or high risk of fracture in the next 10 years.

In addition to femoral neck (hip) BMD, age, gender, fracture history and steroid use, FRAX also takes into account other clinical risk factors to calculate the absolute 10-year risk of a hip fracture or other major osteoporotic fracture (spine, forearm, upper arm).

CAROC (Canadian Association Radiologists & Osteoporosis Canada)

In 2005, Osteoporosis Canada, in association with the Canadian Association of Radiologists, launched the 10-year absolute fracture risk assessment – CAROC.

In addition to BMD (lowest T-score of hip and lumbar spine), age, gender, fracture history and steroid use are taken into consideration to determine an individual’s 10-year risk of fracture.

The presence of both a fragility fracture and steroid use puts the patient at high fracture risk regardless of BMD result.

Version 2, now available for Canadian physicians, uses only femoral neck (hip) BMD rather than the lowest of hip and lumbar spine.

Learn more about the CAROC tool here.